DNA Paternity Testing
Paternity testing is used to establish the biological father of an individual. During a DNA Paternity test, 16 genetic locations are analysed in total. A person possesses two alleles at each location. The alleles are identified by a number. These are inherited from the parents at conception. One comes from the mother and one comes from the father. Therefore when the DNA profiles of biological parents are laid out together, one of the child’s alleles will match up with an allele from the mother’s sample and the other should match up with an allele from the father’s sample. If these alleles match at all locations analysed, a person is included as the biological father of the child because it proves they have passed these genetic markers to the child at conception. Where there is no match, the person is excluded as a biological father. This is based on the fact that it is only possible to pass on to your offspring, the alleles which you possess in your own DNA profile.
BioClinics handled a case where a gentleman from Liverpool had been contacted by non-identical twins who believed he may be their father. After meeting the two sisters he decided wanted to know for definite it the relationship existed and contacted BioClinics to order a DNA Home Testing Kit. We dispatched the Kit to his home address and he collected the DNA samples from himself and the two adult sisters. The samples were returned to us and submitted to our laboratory for processing and after 7 working days the results of the test were given to the gentleman over the phone and the results report sent to him by post. The test result was 0% probability of paternity. This client was very happy with the service we provided and was glad to have a conclusive answer for his own peace of mind.
Three-parent IVF stops defective mitochondrial DNA
The purpose of three-parent IVF is to stop the transmission of defective mitochondrial DNA from mothers to their babies.
Children born after the procedures would posses DNA from their parents plus mitochondrial DNA from a woman donor.
- Mitochondria are rod-shaped power plants in the bodies of cells that supply energy.
- They contain their own DNA, which is only passed down the maternal line.
Faulty mitochondrial genes can lead to a wide range of serious disorders including heart malfunction, kidney and liver disease, stroke, dementia, and blindness, as well as premature death.
Around 6,000 adults in the UK are believed to be affected by mitochondrial diseases.
DNA of extinct frog revived
A team of scientists has revived and reactivated the genome of an extinct Australian frog.
They used sophisticated cloning technology to implant a “dead” cell nucleus into a fresh egg from another frog species.
The bizarre gastric-brooding frog, Rheobatrachus silus – which uniquely swallowed its eggs, brooded its young in its stomach and gave birth through its mouth - became extinct in 1983.
But the Lazarus Project team has been able to recover cell nuclei from tissues collected in the 1970s and kept for 40 years in a conventional deep freezer. The “de-extinction” project aims to bring the frog back to life.
In repeated experiments over five years, the researchers used a laboratory technique known as somatic cell nuclear transfer.
They took fresh donor eggs from the distantly related Great Barred Frog, Mixophyes fasciolatus, inactivated the egg nuclei and replaced them with dead nuclei from the extinct frog.
Some of the eggs spontaneously began to divide and grow to early embryo stage – a tiny ball of many living cells.
Although none of the embryos survived beyond a few days, genetic tests confirmed that the dividing cells contain the genetic material from the extinct frog.
“We are watching Lazarus arise from the dead, step by exciting step,” the leader of the Lazarus Project team, Professor Mike Archer, of the University of New South Wales, in Sydney said.
“We’ve reactivated dead cells into living ones and revived the extinct frog’s genome in the process. Now we have fresh cryo-preserved cells of the extinct frog to use in future cloning experiments,” he said.
On-Site Drug and Alcohol Testing
The BioClinics are an established and trusted Drug Testing Company. We carry out thousands of tests each year throughout the UK and Ireland, providing legally defensible and cost effective drug testing programs to companies within a vast number of industries. The BioClinics are unique within the drug and alcohol testing sector. Our vast network of drug clinic facilities provide local sample collection. While our nationwide team of mobile professionals can offer further choice and convenience by supplying ‘on site’ or ‘at home’ sample collection services to further meet the individual needs of our clients.
Many companies now require employees to be drug tested prior to starting work and throughout their continuous employment. Implementing an effective drug and alcohol testing program within your company demonstrates best practice, both to your own customers and to your employees as part of your duty of care to them. Drug and alcohol testing programs are also held in high regard by Insurance Companies and can have positive effects on your premiums. Why? – because it is proven, that drug and alcohol testing produces a safer and healthier workforce with less accidents, less sick days and higher production levels.
All testing programs are designed to the specific needs of the company and BioClinics will manage all aspects of the testing program. This includes liaising directly with sub contractors, individual work sites, and potential employees, in order to save our clients time and money. This test management is performed at no additional cost and is backed by our commitment to customer service. Our team of Clinical Advisors are always happy to help.
BioClinics are committed to the highest standards of quality and our laboratories are accredited by The United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS) to the International Standard ISO 17025 for DNA analysis, forensic analysis of hair tissue and all human bodily fluids for the detection and quantification of alcohol and drugs of abuse. The United Kingdom Accreditation Service is a full member and MRA Signatory to the ILAC arrangement. ILAC – The International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation – is an international cooperation of laboratory and inspection accreditation bodies. Our laboratories are also accredited by The Ministry of Justice (MoJ) to carry out parentage tests directed by the civil courts in England and Wales under Section 20 of the Family Law Reform Act 1969.
Individual DNA Profiling
Individual DNA Profiling is used to generate a DNA profile for an individual. This profile will be unique to the individual and can be used for various legal identification purposes. Only identical twins share the same DNA profile.
DNA is collected from the client using mouth swabs. The swab is rubbed on the inside of the cheek, collecting skin cells. The DNA is then extracted from these cells and analysed. The analysis identifies the alleles (alternating form of DNA) at sixteen genetic locations along the DNA molecule. There are two alleles at each of the locations analysed. They are each identified by a number.
Clients are supplied with a copy of their DNA profile and an electronic version will be stored in the laboratories secure database. The profile can be used for identification or for comparison in the case of claims of paternity or other biological relationships.
BioClinics provides this service to a wide range of individuals and organisations such as owners of large estates – a legal profile stored with a solicitor can be used for comparison if required e.g. a claim to the estate following the death of the owner. Insurance companies – to confirm the identity of clients. Executives involved in high risk positions either in the UK or abroad.
Hair Analysis Alcohol Testing
Hair Analysis Alcohol Testing looks for direct products of ethanol metabolism. The main part of alcohol is oxidized in the human body. This means it is released as water and carbon dioxide. One part of the alcohol reacts with fatty acids to produce esters (FAEEs). Along with the FAEEs, another metabolite Ethylglucurinide (EtG) is formed in the body by glucuronidation.
As the hair grows, it absorbs these special markers into its structure. While FAEE gets into the hair mainly by diffusion from an external sebum layer, EtG markers are formed almost exclusively in the liver and then deposited into hair mainly from sweat. The more markers there are the more alcohol has been consumed. Due to the way the markers are absorbed by the hair, they are deposited along the shaft and not just at the point of growth. This differs from other drugs that entre the hair shaft via the blood supply. Due to this timeline of alcohol consumption cannot be given by segmenting the hair, the way it can be with other drugs of abuse.
What makes this method of alcohol testing and analysis revolutionary is that Hair Strand testing gives a history going back months if required. No other method can do this. For example, testing using blood only provides results covering a period no longer than one month.
Markers for alcohol are present in all hair including those of teetotallers, however these traces are products of the environment. Simply being in a pub is enough for traces of ethanol to find their way into the hair. This means that complete abstinence cannot always be established by means of these tests because research has shown that even those who have not consumed alcoholic drinks can test positive for both EtG and FAEEs.
However the concentration level of the markers found in the hair of the teetotallers or social/moderate drinkers is significantly decreased when compared to the hair samples of the individuals with excessive alcohol intake. In addition, these hair tests have been designed to establish a pattern of drinking over a period of time and have not been designed to test for a single episode of drinking. The concentration of EtG or FAEEs markers present in the hair sample is averaged for the whole period tested.
Home Test Kits.
BioClinics do Home Testing Kits that can be ordered from the internet. Every so often we give a reminder email to the few that haven’t sent there kits back. In these emails we make sure that everything is ok with the kit and that all the test participants feel alright with everything. From this email the clients can either message back or call. BioClinics recently dealt with a case where the woman whom received the email emailed back with questions and saying that she would be sending it soon, she also informed me that she was not one of the test participants but on of their parents. Once we received this email we replied with answers to all her questions and informing her correct things to do being the mother of a test participant. Once she had collected the samples she emailed us and asked if it would be alright if she scanned the paper work through to be checked before sending the test back. This we did and everything was correct we also let her know to sign the third party form so to be able to access information about the test while at the lab. The woman emailed back the next day saying she had sent the kit to us and that she was very thankful for all our help during the process of the test.
Individual DNA Profiling.
The Individual DNA Profiling is used to generate a DNA profile for the individual involved. This profile will be unique to the individual and can be used for various legal identification reasons.
DNA is collected from the client using mouth swabs. The swab is rubbed on the inside of the cheek, this collects the skin cells. When at the lab the DNA is extracted from these cells and analysed.
The analysis identifies the alleles (alternating form of DNA) at 16 genetic locations along the DNA molecule. There are two alleles at each of the locations analysed. They are each identified by a number.
The profile is unique to the person tested. Only identical twins share the same DNA profile.
The Clients are supplied with a copy of their DNA profile and an electronic version will be stored in the laboratories secure database.
The profile can be used for identification purposes, or for comparison in the case of claims of paternity or other biological relationship.
This is a service that can be used by a wide range of individuals and/or organisations:
1. Owners of large estates, a Legal profile stored with a solicitor can be a source for comparison if required (for someone trying to claim the estate after the owner’s death).
2. Insurance companies, to confirm the identity of clients.
3. Executives/workers involved in high risk positions either in the UK or abroad.
BioClinics have dealt with a case in which, a client was going to work abroad, and was quiet wealthy so they wanted to have a DNA profile done before they went away. This was so that if anything happened to them someone would be able to identify their body and there wealth would go to the right people. This is just one example of how we have helped people with our Individual Profile Analysis.